Paul L Herrman
    Sierra Vista, Arizona USA (DM41um)
    Using Solar Data/Images & Tutorials
    UTC: 
    n0nbh@n0nbh.com

                                                         
Do not use HTML code from translated pages.
Online MOF/LOF HF Prediction Tool Online Conversion Tools (SFI, SN, K-Index, nT, signal noise, geomag field Current CME Updates, Warnings, Predictions and Tutorials Understanding Solar Indicies and Flux values impact to HF propagation Glossary of space and solar terms Understanding Current Solar Images Current HF Propagation Maps Current f0f2 Critical Freq, T-Index, and HF Fade Maps Current MUF, Absorption, F2 Height, and Solar Angle Maps Current Space Conditions, Data and Indices Add Solar-Terrestrial Data to your website/webpage Add Solar-Terrestrial Data to your Windows Vista/7 Sidebar or Macintosh Desktop as a gadget Add Solar-Terrestrial Data to your iPod, iPhone, Android, or BlackBerry Get Solar-Terrestrial Data XML or RSS Feeds

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Solar Data/Propagation
Click to add to your website


Online Links and Favorites


WM7D Callsign Lookup:
  

Other Solar Data Sources
Of course I think my Solar Widget(s) are the best, but there are other free sources available. You choose which one you like the best.

  • Julian (G4ILO) offers an html panel (WebProp) with SN, flux, Indicies, and band conditions.
  • Patrick (N0HR) offers a solar panel (PropagationStats) with flux, Indicies, and warnings.
  • Kevin (N3KL) offers two status bars for X-ray and Geomag field.
  • Anthony (KA9NWM) at wattsupwiththat offers a World Climate Widget with SN, Flux, and solar image.
  • Allard (PE1NWL) at DXrobot - Gouda offers five band condition status bars for VHF Aurora, North American 2m Es, and Europe 2/4/6m Es.
  • Ansgar (DG2KBC) at Make More Miles on VHF offers three status graphs for EME, Europe Es and Meteor Scatter.
  • Elmer (PH5E) at Rig Reference offers a widget that indicates which current HF bands are open.
  • Claudio (IW1QLH) at HRDLOG offers a gadget that indicates current HF activity, solar image, solar flux, & sunspot number.
  • Derek (W4DTB) at OCRA offers a gadget that uses the N0NBH xml file to create a text and image gadget similar to what I offer from a php file. You can download the Source and some examples, along with the readme file from the following link.

Misc Ham

NASA/JPL Favorites
If you can afford it, please consider a donation to my websites.......click to read more




N0NBH Solar Banners in QST Magazine
The N0NBH Solar Banners are featured in Feb 2014 QST Magazine (you have to have a guest or regular membership to view).
Thanks Steve AG1YK for a great article!
CME UPDATES
I am posting the NOAA SWPC WSA-Enlil CME updates on my WSA-Enlil CME page as I receive them from NOAA. These are updated when a CME event is predicted, and contain the display and detailed information about future CME events.

HF Propagation Tools and Solar Data are now on multiple pages for faster loading

  • Use the buttons at the top and bottom of the page to navigate, or use the following links:
  • For Solar-Terrestrial Data banners and widgets (both web page and devices) click here
  • For Online MOF/LOF HF Propagation Prediction Tool, and conversion tools click here
  • For NOAA's SWPC WSA-Enlil Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Solar Wind Prediction Model click here
  • For current Space Weather and HF Propagation Conditions, and MUF Maps click here
  • pdf presentation that contains all the information on this entire webpage, including all the tutorials. You can download from this link
  • pdf presentation that contains detailed instructions on adding a banner to your www.qrz.com BIO page. You can download from this link

Understanding/Using the Data and Images from the Sun

Understanding/Using Solar-Terrestrial Data from the Solar Data Panel(s)

  • Most of us understand the impacts of Solar Flux/Sun Spots have on HF communications, but some are unsure about the remaining data provided in the panel.
  • I have created an easy to understand abbreviated table below that provides HF Propagation conditions based on the current Solar-Terrestrial Data. Factors provided include background X-Ray, Proton Flux, and K index (including the nT measurement), Solar Flux Index (SFI), Sunspots (SN), Electron Flux, and Aurora (includes Normalization factor (n) less than 2.0 = high confidence, greater than 2.0 = low confidence).
  • Because some items are better when high, and others low, I have color coded the blocks. Green is best contitions, yellow marginal, red unacceptable.
  • A printable page (best using landscape) is also provided for ease of use in the shack. This single page easy to understand table is a must for any HAM operator (with a memory as bad as mine has gotten).
  • Note that I will be adding how to use the 304A data to the page in the near future.
  • I added Solar Wind and Bz component to the table.
Click for printable Solar events page

HF & VHF Propagation Conditions based on Current Solar-Terrestrial and other Data

Current Solar-Terrestrial Data Category Radio Blackouts
Use X-Ray
Solar Radiation Storms
Use Proton Flux
Geomagnetic Storms
Use K-Index/K-nT/ Aurora/Solar Wind/Bz
Band Openings
Use Solar Flux (SN)
Electron Alert
Use Electron Flux
Extreme X20 (1 per cycle)
Complete HF blackout on entire sunlit side lasting hours
1000000 (1 per cycle)
Complete HF blackout in polar regions
K=9 (nT=>500) [Aur=10++] (SW=>800) [Bz=-40 -50]
(4 per cycle)
HF impossible. Aurora to 40. Noise S30+.
200-300 (SN=160-250)
Reliable communications all bands up through 6m
>1000 Alert
Partial to complete HF blackout in polar regions
Severe X10 (8 per cycle)
HF blackout on most of sunlit side for 1 to 2 hours
100000 (3 per cycle)
Partial HF blackout in polar regions
K=8 (nT=330-500) [Aur=10+] (SW=700-800) [Bz=-30 -40] (100 per cycle)
HF sporadic. Aurora to 45. Noise S20-S30.
Strong X1 (175 per cycle)
Wide area HF blackout for about an hour on sunlit side
10000 (10 per cycle)
Degraded HF propagation in polar regions
K=7 (nT=200-330) [Aur=10] (SW=600-700) [Bz=-20 -30]
(200 per cycle)
HF intermittent. Aurora to 50. Noise S9-S20.
150-200 (SN=105-160)
Excellent conditions all bands up through 10m w/6m openings
Moderate M5 (350 per cycle)
Limited HF blackout on sunlit side for tens of minutes
1000 (25 per cycle)
Small effects on HF in polar regions
K=6 (nT=120-200) [Aur=9] (SW=500-600) [Bz=-10 -20]
(600 per cycle)
HF fade higher lats. Aurora to 55. Noise S6-S9.
120-150 (SN=70-105)
Fair to good conditions all bands up through 10m
<1000 Active
Degraded HF propagation in polar regions
Minor M1 (2000 per cycle)
Occasional loss of radio contact on sunlit side
100 (50 per cycle)
Minor impacts on HF in polar regions
K=5 (nT=70-120) [Aur=8] (SW=400-500) [Bz=0 -10]
(1700 per cycle)
HF fade higher lats. Aurora to 56. Noise S4-S6.
90-120 (SN=35-70)
Fair conditions all bands up through 15m
<100 Active
Minor impacts on HF in polar regions
Active C1 Moderate Flare
Low absorption of HF signals
10 Active
Very minor impacts on HF in polar regions
K=3-4 (nT=20-70) [Aur=6-7] (SW=200-400) [Bz=0-+50] Unsettled/Active
Minor HF fade higher lats. Aurora 60-58. Noise S2-S3.
70-90 (SN=10-35)
Poor to fair conditions all bands up through 20m
<10 Normal
No impacts on HF
Normal A1-B9 No/Small Flare
No or very minor impact to HF signals
1 Normal
No impacts on HF
K=0-2 (nT=0-20) [Aur=<5] (SW=200-400) [Bz=0-+50] Inactive/Quiet
No impacts on HF. Aurora 67-62. Noise S0-S2.
64-70 (SN=0-10)
Bands above 40m unusable
<1 Normal
No impacts on HF
VHF Conditions
 Aur Lat (Auroral Latitude): Indicates lowest latitude from the current Aurora Activity measurement. Text color coded for low activity, hi-latitude, & mid-latitude.
 Aurora (Northern Auroral Activity): Band Closed = No/Low Auroral activity. High LAT AUR = Auroral activity >60N. MID LAT AUR = Auroral activity 60 to 30N.
 EsEU (Sporadic E - Europe): Band Closed = No Sporadic E (ES) activity. High MUF (2M only) = Cond support 2M ES 50/70/144MHz ES = Respective band open
 EsNA (Sporadic E - North America): Band Closed = No Sporadic E (ES) activity. High MUF = Cond support 2M ES 144MHz ES = ES reported @ 2M
 EME (Earth-Moon-Earth): Current EME degradation. Very Poor (>5.5dB), Poor (4dB), Moderate (2.5dB), Good (1.5dB), Very Good (1dB), Excellent (<1dB).
 Solar Flare Probability: Provides the probability of a solar flare (in %) for the net 24 hours.
 MUF (Max Usable Frequency Bar Color): No Sporadic E (ES) activity / ES reported @ 6M / ES reported @ 4M / Cond support 2M ES / ES reported @ 2M
 MS (Meteor Scatter) Activity Color bar: Provides meteor activity color coded MIN to MAX conditions (see the graph below the bar).

©N0NBH Paul L Herrman 2011

Understanding HF/VHF/UHF/SHF Propagation relative to Guided Wave, Ground Wave, Direct Wave, Ionosphere, Troposphere, Aurora, Meteor Scatter, and Earth-Moon-Earth (EME or Moon Bounce)

  • OK ,the instructor profession in me comes out. The images provided are my attempt at describing how solar/weather/auroral/meteor/EME conditions impact VLF/LF/MF/HF/VHF/UHF/SHF propagation.
  • Each selectable item below is a complete tutorial on the subject, each on a single image, and in easy to understand terms.
  • Select desired plot from box. Page refresh updates all images at once.

 

Click for printable Glossary of terms page

Glossary of terms for the data available in the N0NBH solar banners

Item Element Description
SFI Solar Flux Index DRAO Penticton reported value from 62.5 to 300. Intensity of solar radiation measured at 2800MHz (10.7cm). Good indication of the F layer ionization (layer that gives us most of our DX on HF). The higher the number, the greater the level of ionization is, and the higher the frequency. Measured three times daily, and the last received value is reported. Note that NOAA recorded SFI for the day is the 2nd (or middle) of these readings, and may be different than the last recorded reading displayed on the banners. SFI does correlate to 304A (see graph below).
SN Sunspot Number NOAA reported value from 0 to 250. Daily Sunspot Number provided by NOAA is computed using a formula [R=k (10g+s)] by Rudolph Wolf in 1848, where R is the sunspot number; g is the number of sunspot groups on the solar disk; s is the total number of individual spots in all the groups; and k is a variable scaling factor (usually <1) that accounts for observing conditions and the type of observing device. SN does loosely correlate to SFI. Updated once daily.
A Planetary A Index NOAA reported value from 0 to 400. Provides a daily average level for geomagnetic activity. Uses the average of eight 3 hour K-Index values (magnetic value measured in nanotesla or nT) to provide the level of instability in the earth’s geomagnetic field. When used with K-Index: Both high indicates geomagnetic field is unstable, and HF signals are prone to sudden fades, and some paths may close while others open up abruptly and with little warning. High K index/Low A indicates a sudden, abrupt disturbance in the geomagnetic field, which can cause an intense but brief disruption in HF propagation, but can cause an auroral event. Updated once daily.
K Planetary K Index NOAA reported value from 0 to 9. Measures disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field. Value in nT is measured using a magnetometer during a three-hour interval, and then converted to a factor. Use with A-Index – sees above to determine HF conditions. Updated eight times daily.
X-Ray or XRY Hard X-Rays NOAA reported value from A0.0 to X9.9. Intensity of hard x-rays hitting the earth’s ionosphere. Impacts primarily the D-layer (HF absorption). The letter indicates the order of magnitude of the X-rays (A, B, C, M and X), where A is the lowest. The number further defines the level of radiation. Updated eight times daily.
304A 304 Angstroms NOAA reported value from 0 to unknown. Relative strength of total solar radiation at a wavelength of 304 angstroms (or 30.4 nm), emitted primarily by ionized helium in the sun's photosphere. Two measurements are available for this parameter, one measured by the Solar Dynamics Observatory, using the EVE instrument, and the other, using data from the SOHO satellite, using its SEM instrument. Responsible for about half of all the ionization of the F layer in the ionosphere. 304A does correlate to SFI (see graph below). Updated hourly.
Pnt Flx or PF Proton Flux NOAA reported value from 0 to unknown. Density of charged protons in the solar wind. The higher the numbers, the more the impact the ionosphere. Primarily impacts the E-Layer of the ionosphere. Updated hourly.
Elc Flx or EF Electron Flux NOAA reported value from 0 to unknown. Density of charged electrons in the solar wind. The higher the numbers (>1000), the more the impact the ionosphere. Primarily impacts the E-Layer of the ionosphere. Updated hourly.
Aur Aurora NOAA reported value from 0 to 10++. Indicates how strong the F-Layer ionization is in the polar regions. Higher values cause auroral events (including northern/southern lights) to move to lower latitude. Updated hourly.
n Normalization NOAA reported value from 0 to 5. When <2.0, high confidence in Aurora measurement. When >2, low confidence. Updated hourly.
Bz Bz Component ACE Satellite reported value from +50 to -50. Strength and direction of the interplanetary magnetic field as impacted by solar activity. Positive is same direction as the earth's magnetic field, and negative is the opposite magnetic polarity. Cancels out earth’s magnetic field when negative, which increases the impact of solar particles in the ionosphere. Updated hourly.
SW Solar Wind ACE Satellite reported value from 0 to 1000. Speed (kilometers per second) of the charged particles as they pass earth. The higher the speed, the greater the pressure is exerted on the ionosphere. Values greater than 500 km/sec have impact on HF communications. Updated hourly.
Aur Lat Aurora Latitude Calculated value from 67.5 to <45.0. Calculation from NOAA utilizes the current Aurora measurement. Used to estimate the lowest latitude impacted by the auroral event. Updated hourly.
Aur Aurora DX-Robot reported event (used with permission). Reports Band Closed for No/Low Auroral activity, High LAT AUR for Auroral activity >60N, or MID LAT AUR for Auroral activity from 60 to 30N. Updated every hour.
EsEU Sporadic E Europe DX-Robot reported event (used with permission). Reports Band Closed, High MUF when 2M only is open, or 50/70/144MHz ES when the respective band is reported open. Updated every hour.
EsNA Sporadic E North America DX-Robot reported event (used with permission). Reports Band Closed, High MUF when conditions support Es, and 144MHz ES when the band is reported open. Updated every hour.
EME Deg Earth-Moon-Earth Degradation Make More Miles reported value (used with permission). Reports EME path attenuation as Very Poor (>5.5dB), Poor (4dB), Moderate (2.5dB), Good (1.5dB), Very Good (1dB), Excellent (<1dB). Updated every hour.
Solar Flare Prob Solar Flare Probability University of Bradford predicted value (used with permission). Reports the probability (in %) of a solar flare within the next 24 hours (0-100%). Updated every hour.
MUF Maximum Usable Frequency Make More Miles reported value (used with permission). Provides the Maximum Usable Frequency in a colored bar. Gray indicates No Sporadic E (ES) activity , blue indicates ES reported @ 6M, green indicates ES reported @ 4M, yellow indicates conditions support 2M ES, and red indicates reported @ 2M. Updated every hour.
MS Meteor Scatter Activity Bar Make More Miles reported value (used with permission). Provides the Meteor Scatter activity in a colored bar. Gray indicates no activity. See the color coded graph at the bottom of the bar for activity level. Updated every 1/4 hour.
GeoMag Fld Geomagnetic Field Calculated value. Indicates how quiet or active the earth's magnetic field is based on the K-Index value. Reports as Inactive, Very Quite, Quiet, Unsettled, Active, Minor Storm, Major Storm, Severe Storm, or Extreme Storm. Higher indications can cause HF blackouts and auroral events. Updated every three hours.
Sig Noise Lvl Signal Noise Level Calculated value. Indicates how much noise (in S-units) is being generated by interaction between the solar wind and the geomagnetic activity. A more active and disturbed solar wind, the greater the noise. Updated every hour.
MUF Maximum Usable Frequency NOAA reported value from 0 to 100MHz. Provides the maximum usable frequency in MHz at one of 11 locations worldwide. Updated every 15 minutes.
CME Coronal Mass Ejection NOAA/SWPC predicted date and time (in UTC). Provides the date and time of a predicted earth bound CME event. Color coded for severity, where green is minor, yellow is moderate, and red is severe. Updated when predictions are received from NOAA/SWPC.
©N0NBH Paul L Herrman 2012

Understanding the Solar Images that are available in the Solar Data Panels

  • Other than just choosing your favorite color for the image displayed in the Solar data panel, what are we actually seeing when we observe the various solar images?
   
  • Select "Parts of the Sun" image from the choices above, and use the table below that shows each image that you can display in the image solar panels, with an explanation of each of the spectral lines (elements) and characteristics.
  • Courtesy of SDO (NASA) and the AIA consortium. I added the SDO images to the selectable images banner. Boy, these are GREAT! See the table below for the ?image= parameter. SDO is much better than SoHo, it's amazing! Refer to the HAMQSL FAQ Page for complete modification instructions and examples.
  • I added the Nobeyama Radioheliograph 17 GHz image (?image=norh_17ghz).
Click for printable Solar Image Explanation Card

Understanding Solar Images available in the N0NBH solar banners

SoHo/SDO/Other Image ?image=

nm

Spectral Line & Ionization
TempK
TempC
TempF

Best used to see
SDO/Other Image ?image=

nm

Spectral Line & Ionization
TempK
TempC
TempF

Best used to see
SDO/Other Image ?image=

nm

Spectral Line & Ionization
TempK
TempC
TempF

Best used to see
vsm1
6302
630.2 nm
Iron (Fe) 0 times ionized
5,800K
5,527C
9,980F
Photosphere, sunspots
vsm2
8542
854.2 nm
Calcium (Ca) 1 times ionized
10,000K
9,727C
17,540F
Photosphere, Chromosphere, sunspots
corona
9500
950 nm
White Light
2,000,000K
1,999,727C
3,599,540F
Corona
c2
NA
NA
White Light
2,000,000K
1,999,727C
3,599,540F
Corona, CME, Flare
c3
NA
NA
White Light
2,000,000K
1,999,727C
3,599,540F
Corona, CME, Flare
sh
10830
1083 nm
Helium (He) 0 times ionized
20,000K
19,727C
35,540F
Chromosphere, Tran-reg, sunspots, Granules
ha
6562.8
656.28nm
Hydrogen (H) Hα-Line
20,000K
19,727C
35,540F
Chromosphere, Tran-reg, sunspots, flares
norh_17ghz
17 GHz
17647 μm
Radio Interferometer
N/A
N/A
N/A
Photosphere, sunspots, flares
mdi
6767
676.7 nm
Nickel (Ni) 0 times ionized
6,000K
5727C
10,340F
Photosphere, sunspots
mag
Magnetogram
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Sunspots
sdo_094
94
9.4 nm
Iron (Fe) 17 times ionized
9,000,000K
9,000,000C
16,000,000F
Flaring regions
sdo_131
131
13.1 nm
Iron (Fe) 7/19/22 times ionized
1,000,000K
999,727C
1,799,540F
Flaring regions
sdo_171
171
17.1 nm
Iron (Fe) 8 times ionized
1,000,000K
999,727C
1,799,540F
Quiet corona, upper transition region
sdo_193
193
19.3 nm
Iron (Fe) 11/23 times ionized
1,500,000K
1,499,727C
2,699,540F
Corona and hot flare plasma
sdo_211
211
22.1 nm
Iron (Fe) 13 times ionized
2,000,000K
1,999,727C
3,599,540F
Active-region corona
sdo_304
304
30.4 nm
Helium (He) 1 times ionized
80,000K
79,727C
143,540F
Chromosphere, transition region
sdo_335
335
33.5 nm
Iron (Fe) 15 times ionized
5,000,000K
5,000,000C
9,000,000F
Active-region corona
sdo_1600
1600
160.0 nm
Carbon (C) 3 times ionized
Unknown
 
 
Transition region, upper photosphere
sdo_1700
1700
170.0 nm
Continuum
Unknown
 
 
Temperature minimum, photosphere
sdo_4500
4500
450.0 nm
White Light
2,000,000K
1,999,727C
3,599,540F
Photosphere
sdo_mag1
Magnetogram
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Sunspots
sdo_comp1
211/193/
171
Composite Image
Unknown
 
 
See above
sdo_comp2
304/211/
171
Composite Image
Unknown
 
 
See above
sdo_comp3
94/193/
335
Composite Image
Unknown
 
 
See above
sdo_comp4
170/171
HMI Mag
Composite Image
Unknown
 
 
See above
©N0NBH Paul L Herrman 2011

1996-2012 Comparison of SoHo SEM 304A Data to SFI

  • Courtesy of Jerry (VE6TL).
  • Data from SOHO's/NOAA's database and graphed 304A flux versus SFI over a 16 year period. Overall, there appears to be good agreement in the two measurements.
  • One of the interesting differences in the two curves is the differential. It started out consistent for the first 5 years, then widened after the first peak (2001), broadened, and narrowed considerably at the maximum (2002-3). Since then it has been narrowing until the two curves essentially track each other (since 2009). N0NBH comment - I believe this may be the SEM sensor degrading over time.
Jerry VE6TL 16 year 304A to SFI plot
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Online MOF/LOF HF Prediction Tool Online Conversion Tools (SFI, SN, K-Index, nT, signal noise, geomag field Current CME Updates, Warnings, Predictions and Tutorials Understanding Solar Indicies and Flux values impact to HF propagation Glossary of space and solar terms Understanding Current Solar Images Current HF Propagation Maps Current f0f2 Critical Freq, T-Index, and HF Fade Maps Current MUF, Absorption, F2 Height, and Solar Angle Maps Current Space Conditions, Data and Indices Add Solar-Terrestrial Data to your website/webpage Add Solar-Terrestrial Data to your Windows Vista/7 Sidebar or Macintosh Desktop as a gadget Add Solar-Terrestrial Data to your iPod, iPhone, Android, or BlackBerry Get Solar-Terrestrial Data XML or RSS Feeds

73 all, de Paul N0NBH

31 Jan 2014

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