Paul L Herrman
    Sierra Vista, Arizona USA (DM41um)
    Using Solar Data/Images & Tutorials
    UTC: 
    [email protected]

                                                           
Do not use HTML code from translated pages.
Online MOF/LOF HF Prediction Tool Online Conversion Tools (SFI, SN, K-Index, nT, signal noise, geomag field Current CME Updates, Warnings, Predictions and Tutorials Understanding Solar Indicies and Flux values impact to HF propagation Glossary of space and solar terms Understanding Current Solar Images Current HF Propagation Maps Current f0f2 Critical Freq, T-Index, and HF Fade Maps Current MUF, Absorption, F2 Height, and Solar Angle Maps Current Space Conditions, Data and Indices Add Solar-Terrestrial Data to your website/webpage Add Solar-Terrestrial Data to your Windows Vista/7 Sidebar or Macintosh Desktop as a gadget Add Solar-Terrestrial Data to your iPod, iPhone, Android, or BlackBerry Get Solar-Terrestrial Data XML or RSS Feeds

If you can afford it, please consider a donation to my websites.......click to read more
Solar Data/Propagation
Click to add to your website

Online Links and Favorites






WM7D Callsign Lookup:
  

Other Solar Data Sources
Of course I think my Solar Widget(s) are the best, but there are other free sources available. You choose which one you like the best.

  • Julian (G4ILO) offers an html panel (WebProp) with SN, flux, Indicies, and band conditions.
  • Patrick (N0HR) offers a solar panel (PropagationStats) with flux, Indicies, and warnings.
  • Kevin (N3KL) offers two status bars for X-ray and Geomag field.
  • Anthony (KA9NWM) at wattsupwiththat offers a World Climate Widget with SN, Flux, and solar image.
  • Allard (PE1NWL) at DXrobot - Gouda offers five band condition status bars for VHF Aurora, North American 2m Es, and Europe 2/4/6m Es.
  • Ansgar (DG2KBC) at Make More Miles on VHF offers three status graphs for EME, Europe Es and Meteor Scatter.
  • Elmer (PH5E) at Rig Reference offers a widget that indicates which current HF bands are open.
  • Claudio (IW1QLH) at HRDLOG offers a gadget that indicates current HF activity, solar image, solar flux, & sunspot number.
  • Derek (W4DTB) at OCRA offers a gadget that uses the N0NBH xml file to create a text and image gadget similar to what I offer from a php file. You can download the Source and some examples, along with the readme file from the following link.
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  • Marv (W4ZD) offers a gadget that uses the N0NBH xml file to create an html color coded band conditions chart. Click the following link, and follow the instructions.
p> Misc Ham NASA/JPL Favorites
If you can afford it, please consider a donation to my websites.......click to read more




Mar 16 2021 - HAMQSL Updates and Upgrades in Progress
Items completed:
  • Special thanks to John Ludhi for making a Dashboard for the solar data. Complete information is provide below.
  • Special thanks to Sammy Jones for making an android app for the solar data. Complete information is provide below.
  • Special thanks to Andrew KC2G and Alan N5PA for identifying a reliable source for MUF for Athens,GR; Hermanus,ZA; Sondrestrom,GL; Alaska,US; Niue IS; Darwin,AU; Tromso,NO; Mawson,AQ; Jicamarca,PE; Port Stanley,FK; Ascencion IS; Jeju IS; and Millstone Hill. This has been fixed on all selectable MUF banners, and specifically the marston.php and solarmuf.php banners. Data updated every 10 minutes and validated to be less than 1 day old (otherwise displays No Report)
  • Site is secure SSL from Clouldflare. Just substitute https:// vs http:// in the banner links
Items in progress:
  • 6m North America propagation
    • If you have a source please let me know. Understand I will need their permission, and so far at least one reliable source has refused.
    Please let me know if I break/or you see anything while fixing these issues. Lets hope the lousy Solar Cycle 25 forecast is totaly wrong (as have been in the past).

    HF Propagation Tools and Solar Data are now on multiple pages for faster loading

    • Use the buttons at the top and bottom of the page to navigate, or use the following links:
    • For Solar-Terrestrial Data banners and widgets (both web page and devices) click here
    • For Online MOF/LOF HF Propagation Prediction Tool, and conversion tools click here
    • For NOAA's SWPC WSA-Enlil Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Solar Wind Prediction Model click here
    • For current Space Weather and HF Propagation Conditions, and MUF Maps click here
    • pdf presentation that contains all the information on this entire webpage, including all the tutorials. You can download from this link
    • pdf presentation that contains detailed instructions on adding a banner to your www.qrz.com BIO page. You can download from this link

    Understanding/Using the Data and Images from the Sun

    Understanding/Using Solar-Terrestrial Data from the Solar Data Panel(s)

    • Most of us understand the impacts of Solar Flux/Sun Spots have on HF communications, but some are unsure about the remaining data provided in the panel.
    • I have created an easy to understand abbreviated table below that provides HF Propagation conditions based on the current Solar-Terrestrial Data. Factors provided include background X-Ray, Proton Flux, and K index (including the nT measurement), Solar Flux Index (SFI), Sunspots (SN), Electron Flux, and Aurora (includes Normalization factor (n) less than 2.0 = high confidence, greater than 2.0 = low confidence).
    • Because some items are better when high, and others low, I have color coded the blocks. Green is best contitions, yellow marginal, red unacceptable.
    • A printable page (best using landscape) is also provided for ease of use in the shack. This single page easy to understand table is a must for any HAM operator (with a memory as bad as mine has gotten).
    • Note that I will be adding how to use the 304A data to the page in the near future.
    • I added Solar Wind and Bz component to the table.
    Click for printable Solar events page

    HF & VHF Propagation Conditions based on Current Solar-Terrestrial and other Data

    Current Solar-Terrestrial Data Category Radio Blackouts
    Use X-Ray
    Solar Radiation Storms
    Use Proton Flux
    Geomagnetic Storms
    Use K-Index/K-nT/ Aurora/Solar Wind/Bz
    Band Openings
    Use Solar Flux (SN)
    Electron Alert
    Use Electron Flux
    Extreme X20 (1 per cycle)
    Complete HF blackout on entire sunlit side lasting hours
    1000000 (1 per cycle)
    Complete HF blackout in polar regions
    K=9 (nT=>500) [Aur=10++] (SW=>800) [Bz=-40 -50]
    (4 per cycle)
    HF impossible. Aurora to 40. Noise S30+.
    200-300 (SN=160-250)
    Reliable communications all bands up through 6m
    >1000 Alert
    Partial to complete HF blackout in polar regions
    Severe X10 (8 per cycle)
    HF blackout on most of sunlit side for 1 to 2 hours
    100000 (3 per cycle)
    Partial HF blackout in polar regions
    K=8 (nT=330-500) [Aur=10+] (SW=700-800) [Bz=-30 -40] (100 per cycle)
    HF sporadic. Aurora to 45. Noise S20-S30.
    Strong X1 (175 per cycle)
    Wide area HF blackout for about an hour on sunlit side
    10000 (10 per cycle)
    Degraded HF propagation in polar regions
    K=7 (nT=200-330) [Aur=10] (SW=600-700) [Bz=-20 -30]
    (200 per cycle)
    HF intermittent. Aurora to 50. Noise S9-S20.
    150-200 (SN=105-160)
    Excellent conditions all bands up through 10m w/6m openings
    Moderate M5 (350 per cycle)
    Limited HF blackout on sunlit side for tens of minutes
    1000 (25 per cycle)
    Small effects on HF in polar regions
    K=6 (nT=120-200) [Aur=9] (SW=500-600) [Bz=-10 -20]
    (600 per cycle)
    HF fade higher lats. Aurora to 55. Noise S6-S9.
    120-150 (SN=70-105)
    Fair to good conditions all bands up through 10m
    <1000 Active
    Degraded HF propagation in polar regions
    Minor M1 (2000 per cycle)
    Occasional loss of radio contact on sunlit side
    100 (50 per cycle)
    Minor impacts on HF in polar regions
    K=5 (nT=70-120) [Aur=8] (SW=400-500) [Bz=0 -10]
    (1700 per cycle)
    HF fade higher lats. Aurora to 56. Noise S4-S6.
    90-120 (SN=35-70)
    Fair conditions all bands up through 15m
    <100 Active
    Minor impacts on HF in polar regions
    Active C1 Moderate Flare
    Low absorption of HF signals
    10 Active
    Very minor impacts on HF in polar regions
    K=3-4 (nT=20-70) [Aur=6-7] (SW=200-400) [Bz=0-+50] Unsettled/Active
    Minor HF fade higher lats. Aurora 60-58. Noise S2-S3.
    70-90 (SN=10-35)
    Poor to fair conditions all bands up through 20m
    <10 Normal
    No impacts on HF
    Normal A1-B9 No/Small Flare
    No or very minor impact to HF signals
    1 Normal
    No impacts on HF
    K=0-2 (nT=0-20) [Aur=<5] (SW=200-400) [Bz=0-+50] Inactive/Quiet
    No impacts on HF. Aurora 67-62. Noise S0-S2.
    64-70 (SN=0-10)
    Bands above 40m unusable
    <1 Normal
    No impacts on HF
    VHF Conditions
     Aur Lat (Auroral Latitude): Indicates lowest latitude from the current Aurora Activity measurement. Text color coded for low activity, hi-latitude, & mid-latitude.
     Aurora (Northern Auroral Activity): Band Closed = No/Low Auroral activity. High LAT AUR = Auroral activity >60N. MID LAT AUR = Auroral activity 60 to 30N.
     EsEU (Sporadic E - Europe): Band Closed = No Sporadic E (ES) activity. High MUF (2M only) = Cond support 2M ES 50/70/144MHz ES = Respective band open
     EsNA (Sporadic E - North America): Band Closed = No Sporadic E (ES) activity. High MUF = Cond support 2M ES 144MHz ES = ES reported @ 2M
     EME (Earth-Moon-Earth): Current EME degradation. Very Poor (>5.5dB), Poor (4dB), Moderate (2.5dB), Good (1.5dB), Very Good (1dB), Excellent (<1dB).
     Solar Flare Probability: Provides the probability of a solar flare (in %) for the net 24 hours.
     MUF (Max Usable Frequency Bar Color): No Sporadic E (ES) activity / ES reported @ 6M / ES reported @ 4M / Cond support 2M ES / ES reported @ 2M
     MS (Meteor Scatter) Activity Color bar: Provides meteor activity color coded MIN to MAX conditions (see the graph below the bar).

    ©N0NBH Paul L Herrman 2011

    Understanding HF/VHF/UHF/SHF Propagation relative to Guided Wave, Ground Wave, Direct Wave, Ionosphere, Troposphere, Aurora, Meteor Scatter, and Earth-Moon-Earth (EME or Moon Bounce)

    • OK ,the instructor profession in me comes out. The images provided are my attempt at describing how solar/weather/auroral/meteor/EME conditions impact VLF/LF/MF/HF/VHF/UHF/SHF propagation.
    • Each selectable item below is a complete tutorial on the subject, each on a single image, and in easy to understand terms.
    • Select desired plot from box. Page refresh updates all images at once.

     

    Click for printable Glossary of terms page

    Glossary of terms for the data available in the N0NBH solar banners

    Item Element Description
    SFI Solar Flux Index DRAO Penticton reported value from 62.5 to 300. Intensity of solar radiation measured at 2800MHz (10.7cm). Good indication of the F layer ionization (layer that gives us most of our DX on HF). The higher the number, the greater the level of ionization is, and the higher the frequency. Measured three times daily, and the last received value is reported. Note that NOAA recorded SFI for the day is the 2nd (or middle) of these readings, and may be different than the last recorded reading displayed on the banners. SFI does correlate to 304A (see graph below).
    SN Sunspot Number NOAA reported value from 0 to 250. Daily Sunspot Number provided by NOAA is computed using a formula [R=k (10g+s)] by Rudolph Wolf in 1848, where R is the sunspot number; g is the number of sunspot groups on the solar disk; s is the total number of individual spots in all the groups; and k is a variable scaling factor (usually <1) that accounts for observing conditions and the type of observing device. SN does loosely correlate to SFI. Updated once daily.
    A Planetary A Index NOAA reported value from 0 to 400. Provides a daily average level for geomagnetic activity. Uses the average of eight 3 hour K-Index values (magnetic value measured in nanotesla or nT) to provide the level of instability in the earth’s geomagnetic field. When used with K-Index: Both high indicates geomagnetic field is unstable, and HF signals are prone to sudden fades, and some paths may close while others open up abruptly and with little warning. High K index/Low A indicates a sudden, abrupt disturbance in the geomagnetic field, which can cause an intense but brief disruption in HF propagation, but can cause an auroral event. Updated once daily.
    K Planetary K Index NOAA reported value from 0 to 9. Measures disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field. Value in nT is measured using a magnetometer during a three-hour interval, and then converted to a factor. Use with A-Index – sees above to determine HF conditions. Updated eight times daily.
    X-Ray or XRY Hard X-Rays NOAA reported value from A0.0 to X9.9. Intensity of hard x-rays hitting the earth’s ionosphere. Impacts primarily the D-layer (HF absorption). The letter indicates the order of magnitude of the X-rays (A, B, C, M and X), where A is the lowest. The number further defines the level of radiation. Updated eight times daily.
    304A 304 Angstroms NOAA reported value from 0 to unknown. Relative strength of total solar radiation at a wavelength of 304 angstroms (or 30.4 nm), emitted primarily by ionized helium in the sun's photosphere. Two measurements are available for this parameter, one measured by the Solar Dynamics Observatory, using the EVE instrument, and the other, using data from the SOHO satellite, using its SEM instrument. Responsible for about half of all the ionization of the F layer in the ionosphere. 304A does correlate to SFI (see graph below). Updated hourly.
    Pnt Flx or PF Proton Flux NOAA reported value from 0 to unknown. Density of charged protons in the solar wind. The higher the numbers, the more the impact the ionosphere. Primarily impacts the E-Layer of the ionosphere. Updated hourly.
    Elc Flx or EF Electron Flux NOAA reported value from 0 to unknown. Density of charged electrons in the solar wind. The higher the numbers (>1000), the more the impact the ionosphere. Primarily impacts the E-Layer of the ionosphere. Updated hourly.
    Aur Aurora Data is now calculated from the current hemispheric power value (0-150 GW) to give the old reported scaled factor value from 0 to 10++. Indicates how strong the F-Layer ionization is in the polar regions. Higher values cause auroral events (including northern/southern lights) to move to lower latitude. Updated every 15 minutes.
    n Normalization Always 1.99 now that Aur is calculated. Will be removed on the next major banner update.
    Bz Bz Component ACE Satellite reported value from +50 to -50. Strength and direction of the interplanetary magnetic field as impacted by solar activity. Positive is same direction as the earth's magnetic field, and negative is the opposite magnetic polarity. Cancels out earth’s magnetic field when negative, which increases the impact of solar particles in the ionosphere. Updated hourly.
    SW Solar Wind ACE Satellite reported value from 0 to 1000. Speed (kilometers per second) of the charged particles as they pass earth. The higher the speed, the greater the pressure is exerted on the ionosphere. Values greater than 500 km/sec have impact on HF communications. Updated hourly.
    Aur Lat Aurora Latitude Calculated value from 67.5 to <45.0. Calculation from NOAA utilizes the current Aurora measurement. Used to estimate the lowest latitude impacted by the auroral event. Updated every 15 minutes.
    Aur Aurora DX-Robot reported event (used with permission). Reports Band Closed for No/Low Auroral activity, High LAT AUR for Auroral activity >60N, or MID LAT AUR for Auroral activity from 60 to 30N. Updated every hour.
    EsEU Sporadic E Europe DX-Robot reported event (used with permission). Reports Band Closed, High MUF when 2M only is open, or 50/70/144MHz ES when the respective band is reported open. Updated every hour.
    EsNA Sporadic E North America DX-Robot reported event (used with permission). Reports Band Closed, High MUF when conditions support Es, and 144MHz ES when the band is reported open. Updated every hour.
    EME Deg Earth-Moon-Earth Degradation Make More Miles reported value (used with permission). Reports EME path attenuation as Very Poor (>5.5dB), Poor (4dB), Moderate (2.5dB), Good (1.5dB), Very Good (1dB), Excellent (<1dB). Updated every hour.
    Solar Flare Prob Solar Flare Probability University of Bradford predicted value (used with permission). Reports the probability (in %) of a solar flare within the next 24 hours (0-100%). Updated every hour.
    MUF Maximum Usable Frequency Make More Miles reported value (used with permission). Provides the Maximum Usable Frequency in a colored bar. Gray indicates No Sporadic E (ES) activity , blue indicates ES reported @ 6M, green indicates ES reported @ 4M, yellow indicates conditions support 2M ES, and red indicates reported @ 2M. Updated every hour.
    MS Meteor Scatter Activity Bar Make More Miles reported value (used with permission). Provides the Meteor Scatter activity in a colored bar. Gray indicates no activity. See the color coded graph at the bottom of the bar for activity level. Updated every 1/4 hour.
    GeoMag Fld Geomagnetic Field Calculated value. Indicates how quiet or active the earth's magnetic field is based on the K-Index value. Reports as Inactive, Very Quite, Quiet, Unsettled, Active, Minor Storm, Major Storm, Severe Storm, or Extreme Storm. Higher indications can cause HF blackouts and auroral events. Updated every three hours.
    Sig Noise Lvl Signal Noise Level Calculated value. Indicates how much noise (in S-units) is being generated by interaction between the solar wind and the geomagnetic activity. A more active and disturbed solar wind, the greater the noise. Updated every hour.
    MUF Maximum Usable Frequency NOAA reported value from 0 to 100MHz. Provides the maximum usable frequency in MHz at one of 11 locations worldwide. Updated every 15 minutes.
    CME Coronal Mass Ejection NOAA/SWPC predicted date and time (in UTC). Provides the date and time of a predicted earth bound CME event. Color coded for severity, where green is minor, yellow is moderate, and red is severe. Updated when predictions are received from NOAA/SWPC.
    ©N0NBH Paul L Herrman 2012

    Understanding the Solar Images that are available in the Solar Data Panels

    • Other than just choosing your favorite color for the image displayed in the Solar data panel, what are we actually seeing when we observe the various solar images?
       
    • Select "Parts of the Sun" image from the choices above, and use the table below that shows each image that you can display in the image solar panels, with an explanation of each of the spectral lines (elements) and characteristics.
    • Courtesy of SDO (NASA) and the AIA consortium. I added the SDO images to the selectable images banner. Boy, these are GREAT! See the table below for the ?image= parameter. SDO is much better than SoHo, it's amazing! Refer to the HAMQSL FAQ Page for complete modification instructions and examples.
    • I added the Nobeyama Radioheliograph 17 GHz image (?image=norh_17ghz).
    Click for printable Solar Image Explanation Card

    Understanding Solar Images available in the N0NBH solar banners

    SoHo/SDO/Other Image ?image=

    nm

    Spectral Line & Ionization
    TempK
    TempC
    TempF

    Best used to see
    SDO/Other Image ?image=

    nm

    Spectral Line & Ionization
    TempK
    TempC
    TempF

    Best used to see
    SDO/Other Image ?image=

    nm

    Spectral Line & Ionization
    TempK
    TempC
    TempF

    Best used to see
    vsm1
    6302
    630.2 nm
    Iron (Fe) 0 times ionized
    5,800K
    5,527C
    9,980F
    Photosphere, sunspots
    vsm2
    8542
    854.2 nm
    Calcium (Ca) 1 times ionized
    10,000K
    9,727C
    17,540F
    Photosphere, Chromosphere, sunspots
    corona
    9500
    950 nm
    White Light
    2,000,000K
    1,999,727C
    3,599,540F
    Corona
    c2
    NA
    NA
    White Light
    2,000,000K
    1,999,727C
    3,599,540F
    Corona, CME, Flare
    c3
    NA
    NA
    White Light
    2,000,000K
    1,999,727C
    3,599,540F
    Corona, CME, Flare
    sh
    10830
    1083 nm
    Helium (He) 0 times ionized
    20,000K
    19,727C
    35,540F
    Chromosphere, Tran-reg, sunspots, Granules
    ha
    6562.8
    656.28nm
    Hydrogen (H) Hα-Line
    20,000K
    19,727C
    35,540F
    Chromosphere, Tran-reg, sunspots, flares
    norh_17ghz
    17 GHz
    17647 μm
    Radio Interferometer
    N/A
    N/A
    N/A
    Photosphere, sunspots, flares
    mdi
    6767
    676.7 nm
    Nickel (Ni) 0 times ionized
    6,000K
    5727C
    10,340F
    Photosphere, sunspots
    mag
    Magnetogram
    N/A
    N/A
    N/A
    N/A
    N/A
    N/A
    Sunspots
    sdo_094
    94
    9.4 nm
    Iron (Fe) 17 times ionized
    9,000,000K
    9,000,000C
    16,000,000F
    Flaring regions
    sdo_131
    131
    13.1 nm
    Iron (Fe) 7/19/22 times ionized
    1,000,000K
    999,727C
    1,799,540F
    Flaring regions
    sdo_171
    171
    17.1 nm
    Iron (Fe) 8 times ionized
    1,000,000K
    999,727C
    1,799,540F
    Quiet corona, upper transition region
    sdo_193
    193
    19.3 nm
    Iron (Fe) 11/23 times ionized
    1,500,000K
    1,499,727C
    2,699,540F
    Corona and hot flare plasma
    sdo_211
    211
    22.1 nm
    Iron (Fe) 13 times ionized
    2,000,000K
    1,999,727C
    3,599,540F
    Active-region corona
    sdo_304
    304
    30.4 nm
    Helium (He) 1 times ionized
    80,000K
    79,727C
    143,540F
    Chromosphere, transition region
    sdo_335
    335
    33.5 nm
    Iron (Fe) 15 times ionized
    5,000,000K
    5,000,000C
    9,000,000F
    Active-region corona
    sdo_1600
    1600
    160.0 nm
    Carbon (C) 3 times ionized
    Unknown
     
     
    Transition region, upper photosphere
    sdo_1700
    1700
    170.0 nm
    Continuum
    Unknown
     
     
    Temperature minimum, photosphere
    sdo_4500
    4500
    450.0 nm
    White Light
    2,000,000K
    1,999,727C
    3,599,540F
    Photosphere
    sdo_mag1
    Magnetogram
    N/A
    N/A
    N/A
    N/A
    N/A
    N/A
    Sunspots
    sdo_comp1
    211/193/
    171
    Composite Image
    Unknown
     
     
    See above
    sdo_comp2
    304/211/
    171
    Composite Image
    Unknown
     
     
    See above
    sdo_comp3
    94/193/
    335
    Composite Image
    Unknown
     
     
    See above
    sdo_comp4
    170/171
    HMI Mag
    Composite Image
    Unknown
     
     
    See above
    ©N0NBH Paul L Herrman 2011

    2010 Solar Forecast Whitepaper

    • Courtesy of Jerry (VE6TL), here is a white paper describing the forecast for the remainder of Solar Cycle 24, and peak of Solar Cycle 25 in 2024.

    1996-2012 Comparison of SoHo SEM 304A Data to SFI

    • Courtesy of Jerry (VE6TL).
    • Data from SOHO's/NOAA's database and graphed 304A flux versus SFI over a 16 year period. Overall, there appears to be good agreement in the two measurements.
    • One of the interesting differences in the two curves is the differential. It started out consistent for the first 5 years, then widened after the first peak (2001), broadened, and narrowed considerably at the maximum (2002-3). Since then it has been narrowing until the two curves essentially track each other (since 2009). N0NBH comment - I believe this may be the SEM sensor degrading over time.
    Jerry VE6TL 16 year 304A to SFI plot
If you can afford it, please consider a donation to help keep these items available.......click to read more
Worldwide HAM Radio QSL Website

Online MOF/LOF HF Prediction Tool Online Conversion Tools (SFI, SN, K-Index, nT, signal noise, geomag field Current CME Updates, Warnings, Predictions and Tutorials Understanding Solar Indicies and Flux values impact to HF propagation Glossary of space and solar terms Understanding Current Solar Images Current HF Propagation Maps Current f0f2 Critical Freq, T-Index, and HF Fade Maps Current MUF, Absorption, F2 Height, and Solar Angle Maps Current Space Conditions, Data and Indices Add Solar-Terrestrial Data to your website/webpage Add Solar-Terrestrial Data to your Windows Vista/7 Sidebar or Macintosh Desktop as a gadget Add Solar-Terrestrial Data to your iPod, iPhone, Android, or BlackBerry Get Solar-Terrestrial Data XML or RSS Feeds

73 all, de Paul N0NBH

16 Mar 2021

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